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Farmed Salmon 

The David Suzuki Foundation ( www.davidsuzuki.org ) offers the following reasons why you shouldnít eat farmed salmon:


Environmental Reasons:

  1. Farmed salmon are grown in floating netcages and impact wild salmon and other marine species by spreading disease and parasites.

  2. Farmed salmon are given antibiotics, other drugs, and pesticides. The drug-laden wastes from surplus food and feces pollute the marine environment.

  3. Farmed salmon escape from their netcages - often by the thousands - and
    can displace fragile wild stocks from their habitat. 

Health Reasons:

  1. Farmed salmon are given antibiotics that are also used to treat human illness. This contributes to the dangerous increase of antibiotic-resistant disease worldwide.

  2. Farmed salmon receive more antibiotics by weight than any other livestock.

  3. Farmed salmon contain lower levels of omega-3 fatty acids.

Mythic Reasons:

  1. Farmed salmon DONíT help feed the world; they represent a 'net loss' of protein worldwide. Three to five kilograms of other fish are used to make the feed to produce every kilogram of farmed salmon.

  2. Farmed salmon DONíT help conserve threatened or endangered wild salmon stocks. They pose a threat to wild stocks because of their parasites and disease contaminating wild salmon, because of their reducing the price of wild salmon, forcing fisherman to increase their catch in order to make a living.

  3. Farmed salmon DONíT taste just like wild salmon. In blind taste tests, farmed salmon loses every time. Food critics, chefs, and fisherman judge the taste and texture of wild salmon to be far superior to farmed varieties, which are often found to be bland and mushy. Farmed salmon are also administered chemical dyes to color their flesh an appealing pink; otherwise the flesh would be gray.  

Indigenous Peoples' Caucus Statement 

12th United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development

21 April 2004, United Nations, New York, New York

Human settlements, water and sanitation cover a complex of social and
ecological inter-relationships, between peoples and Mother Earth. Human
settlements are cultural homes that nurture the traditional knowledge and
wisdom within our larger ecological home, Mother Earth. Water is a sacred
element of this planet and it sustains all life. Sanitation standard
determines the well-being, health and life of biodiversity and peoples.

Human settlements among Indigenous Peoples are characteristically
self-sustaining communities, where peoples are not separate from their
lands, territories and natural resources, including water. These provide for
peoples' social, economic, religious, political needs and environments. This
is a far cry from the urban concept of settlements as simply infrastructures
and facilities.

For Indigenous hunters, gatherers, nomads, farmers, herders, fishers and
pastoralists, a continuing relationship and access to their natural
homelands provide for their livelihood and food security. They follow
patterns of human settlement, which are appropriate for their natural

Related to human settlement, water is a critical source of life. In many
Indigenous societies, their relationship to the life-giving qualities of
water permeates their culture and spiritual values. Indigenous Peoples'
systems of water management and use are based upon principles and practices
that balance immediate needs with the needs of the environment and other
living things, plants and animals, as well as other people, and the
sustainability for future generations. Indigenous Peoples have an important
role in sustainable water resource management and their knowledge is an
integral part of humanity's heritage and cultural diversity.

Sufficient attention must be paid at this meeting to reviewing the overall
concepts of governance, practice of sustainable livelihood, integrated
land-use planning and resource management to ensure that the long-term
diversity and health of ecosystems continue to nurture human settlements,
including the well-being of Indigenous Peoples.

The demands of free trade agreements that promote the privatization of
Indigenous lands and territories have forced many Indigenous Peoples to
migrate to urban areas for economic reasons. Within these pockets of urban
cities, Indigenous Peoples are forced to join human settlements of poverty
and to survive in isolation, away from family support, a community sense of
belonging and their cultural values. The poverty of Indigenous Peoples is
directly linked to the dispossession of their lands, territories and natural
resources, which are essential for their security, livelihoods and
well-being. The loss of land through government expropriation, forced
resettlement and modernization have severely impacted them.

In this context, due respect must be given to the Indigenous Peoples' right
to self-determination and sovereignty over essential life-sustaining
elements. Government policies are restricting access to their lands and
territories, violating their right to sustainable livelihoods, water sources
and appropriate housing. These policies directly undermine the goal of human
security, poverty alleviation and housing for all, leading to the deep
impoverishment of Indigenous co

Urban Environmental Accords

12th United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development


Action 1 Adopt and implement a policy to increase the use of renewable energy to meet ten percent of the cityís peak electric load within seven years.

Action 2 Adopt and implement a policy to reduce the cityís peak electric load by ten percent within seven years through energy efficiency, shifting the timing of energy demands, and conservation measures.

Action 3 Adopt a city-wide greenhouse gas reduction plan that reduces the jurisdictionís emissions by twenty-five percent by 2030, and which includes a system for accounting and auditing greenhouse gas emissions.


Waste Reduction

Action 4 Establish a policy to achieve zero waste to landfills and incinerators by 2040.

Action 5 Adopt a citywide law that reduces the use of a disposable, toxic, or non-renewable product category by at least fifty percent in seven years.

Action 6 Implement "user-friendly" recycling and composting programs, with the goal of reducing by twenty percent per capita solid waste disposal to landfill and incineration in seven years.


Urban Design

Action 7 Adopt a policy that mandates a green building rating system standard that applies to all new municipal buildings.

Action 8 Adopt urban planning principles and practices that advance higher density, mixed use, walkable, bikeable and disabled-accessible neighborhoods which coordinate land use and transportation with open space systems for recreation and ecological reconstruction.

Action 9 Adopt a policy or implement a program that creates environmentally beneficial jobs in slums and/or low-income neighborhoods.

Urban Nature

Action 10 Ensure that there is an accessible public park or recreational open space within half-a-kilometer of every city resident by 2015.

Action 11 Conduct an inventory of existing canopy coverage in your city; and, then establish a goal based on ecological and community considerations to plant and maintain canopy coverage in not less than fifty percent of all available sidewalk planting sites.

Action 12 Pass legislation that protects critical habitat corridors and other key habitat characteristics (e.g. water features, food-bearing plants, shelter for wildlife, use of native species, etc.) from unsustainable development.



Action 13 Develop and implement a policy which expands affordable public transportation coverage to within half-a-kilometer of all city residents in ten years.

Action 14 Pass a law or implement a program that eliminates leaded gasoline (where it is still used); phases down sulfur levels in diesel and gasoline fuels, concurrent with using advanced emission controls on all buses, taxis, and public fleets to reduce particulate matter and smog-forming emissions from those fleets by fifty percent in seven years.

Action 15 Implement a policy to reduce the percentage of commute trips by single occupancy vehicles by ten percent in seven years.


Environmental Health

Action 16 Every year, identify one product, chemical, or compound that is used within the city that represents the greatest risk to human health and adopt a law and provide incentives to reduce or eliminate its use by the municipal government.

Action 17 Promote the public health and environmental benefits of supporting locally-grown organic foods. Ensure that twenty percent of all city facilities (including schools) serve locally-grown and organic food within seven years.

Action 18 Establish an Air Quality Index (AQI) to measure the level of air pollution and set the goal of reducing by ten percent in seven years the number of days categorized in the AQI range as "unhealthy" or "hazardous."



Action 19 Develop policies to increase adequate access to safe drinking water, aiming at access for all by 2015. For cities with potable water consumption greater than 100 liters per capita per day, adopt and implement policies to reduce consumption by ten percent by 2015.

Action 20 Protect the ecological integrity of the cityís primary drinking water sources (i.e., aquifers, rivers, lakes, wetlands and associated ecosystems).

Action 21 Adopt municipal wastewater management guidelines and reduce the volume of untreated wastewater discharges by 10 percent in seven years through the expanded use of recycled water and the implementation of a sustainable urban watershed planning process that includes participants of all affected communities and is based on sound economic, social, and environmental principles


Vision and Implementation

THE 21 ACTIONS that comprise the Urban Environmental Accords are organized by urban environmental themes. They are proven first steps toward environmental sustainability. However, to achieve long-term sustainability, cities will have to progressively improve performance in all thematic areas.

Implementing the Urban Environmental Accords will require an open, transparent, and participatory dialogue between government, community groups, businesses, academic institutions, and other key partners. Accords implementation will benefit where decisions are made on the basis of a careful assessment of available alternatives using the best available science.

The call to action set forth in the Accords will most often result in cost savings as a result of diminished resource consumption and improvements in the health and general well-being of city residents. Implementation of the Accords can leverage each city's purchasing power to promote and even require responsible environmental, labor and human rights practices from vendors.

Between now and the World Environment Day 2012, cities shall work to implement as many of the 21 Actions as possible. The ability of cities to enact local environmental laws and policies differs greatly. However, the success of the Accords will ultimately be judged on the basis of actions taken. Therefore, the Accords can be implemented though programs and activities even where cities lack the requisite legislative authority to adopt laws.

The goal is for cities to pick three actions to adopt each year. In order to recognize the progress of cities to implement the Accords, a City Green Star Program shall be created. At the end of the seven years a city that has implemented:
19 to 21 Actions shall be recognized as a City
15 to 18 Actions shall be recognized as a City 
12 to 17 Actions shall be recognized as a City 
8 to 11 Actions shall be recognized as a City